The UK Proceeds of Crime Act Explained

By June 2, 2023 April 4th, 2024 Criminal Law
UK Proceeds of Crime

The Proceeds of Crime Act (POCA) is a vital piece of UK legislation that allows law enforcement agencies to tackle criminal activity by confiscating assets obtained through illegal means. The Act has been in place since 2002 and has had a significant effect on the UK’s ability to prevent money laundering, prosecute criminals, and recover proceeds of crime. 

It is essential to understand the implications of POCA, both for those who may face charges under the legislation and for those who may be the victims of criminal activity. This article will have the Proceeds of crime act explained and offer guidance on how it works and the offences listed under this law. We hope to educate and provide you with a clear understanding of this complex law.

The Proceeds of Crime Act of 2002

The Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 provides the authorities with powers to confiscate assets obtained through criminal activity. The legislation was introduced to tackle money laundering and prevent criminals from benefiting from their illegal activities. 

The current law is a significant improvement over its predecessor, the Proceeds from Crime Act 1971. The new act has strengthened the legal framework for confiscating the proceeds of criminal activity and made it easier for law enforcement authorities to prosecute individuals who have benefited from crime. 

The 2002 act is more comprehensive as it provides greater powers to law enforcement agencies to investigate and seize assets. It also includes provisions for money laundering offences, which were not addressed in the 1971 Act.

How it works 

POCA provides law enforcement agencies with a range of powers to seize cash, property, valuables and other assets obtained through illegal means. It also allows the authorities to freeze assets while investigations are ongoing and confiscate them if they are found to be the proceeds of crime.

To initiate legal proceedings under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002, the following conditions must be met:

  1.       A defendant must be convicted of an offence in proceedings brought before the Crown Court, or their case must be committed to the Crown Court for sentencing.
  2.       The prosecution must request the court to commence POCA proceedings, or the court must deem it appropriate to initiate such proceedings.

When the prosecution asks the court to proceed to the confiscation stage, which may occur during a POCA court hearing, POCA proceedings become mandatory. It is important to note that the Magistrates’ Court does not have the authority to issue confiscation orders. Only the Crown Court has the power to make such orders.


Understanding the POCA process is essential for determining the amount a defendant must pay under a confiscation order.

The first step in the process is to assess the defendant’s payment obligations. A confiscation order is a directive issued by the Crown Court, requiring a convicted defendant to pay a specific sum of money to HM Courts and Tribunals Service (HMCTS) either immediately or within a specified period.

To arrive at the payment amount, two key figures must be calculated: the benefit figure and the available amount.

The benefit figure represents the financial gain the defendant obtained through their criminal activities. It reflects the amount they have unlawfully acquired.

On the other hand, the available amount refers to the funds, assets, or property the defendant currently possesses at the time of prosecution.

The authorities use the benefit figure and the available amount to determine the “recoverable amount,” which is the final value. The confiscation order is then issued for the exact sum of the recoverable amount.

Typically, the recoverable amount corresponds to the defendant’s benefit from their criminal conduct, as indicated by the benefit figure. This is the usual amount considered for the confiscation order.

However, if the benefit figure exceeds the available amount, the available amount becomes the maximum sum that can be recovered. In such cases, the confiscation order is limited to the available amount that can be feasibly returned.

Now, what if the defendant is unable to pay the confiscation order? The confiscation period may be extended up to six months if they can demonstrate exceptional circumstances to the court within a year of the order’s issuance. This allows for consideration of an individual’s financial situation.

Meanwhile, if the authorities cannot agree on the defendant’s financial benefit and the amount to be confiscated, a POCA court hearing may take place. Prior to the hearing, evidence will be collected from the defendant, a POCA lawyer, experts, and relevant third parties.

Purpose and importance of POCA 


Facilitates the confiscation of assets obtained through criminal activity 

One of the primary purposes of POCA is to enable the authorities to confiscate assets obtained unlawfully. This is an important tool in the fight against crime, as it prevents criminals from profiting from their illegal activities and reduces the incentive to engage in criminal behaviour.

Prevent money laundering 

POCA also helps to prevent money laundering, which is the process of masquerading the proceeds of crime as legitimate income. By seizing assets obtained through illegal means, POCA makes it more difficult to launder money and to move it across borders.

Allows for the sharing of relevant information between government agencies 

POCA also allows for the sharing of relevant information between government agencies, including law enforcement, financial regulators, and tax authorities. This helps to ensure that the authorities can work together to identify and prevent criminal activity.

Three major offences under POCA



One of the key offences under POCA is concealing assets obtained through criminal activity. This includes hiding, transferring, or converting assets to prevent them from being seized by the authorities.


Arranging is another offence under POCA that relates to facilitating the transfer or disposal of assets that have been obtained through criminal activity. This includes providing advice or assistance to individuals who are looking to move or conceal assets.


Acquiring assets that have been obtained illegally is also an offence under POCA. This includes knowingly receiving or purchasing assets that have been obtained through illegal means.


POCA is a crucial piece of legislation in curbing financial crime in the UK. Its purpose is to enable the authorities to confiscate the proceeds of criminal activity and prevent money laundering. POCA also facilitates the sharing of information between government agencies and sets out a framework for prosecuting those who are involved in criminal activity related to financial gain. 

If you are unsure whether you may have committed an offence under POCA or if you have been charged with a POCA-related offence, it is essential to seek legal advice from a solicitor who has expertise in this area of the law. 

We understand that being accused of a criminal offence can be an incredibly stressful and worrying time. That is why our team at Wheldon Law is here to provide you with the expert legal support and guidance you need to navigate your case and achieve the best possible outcome.